Health Sciences Investigations (HSI) Journal https://www.hsijournal.org/ojs/index.php/journal <p><a href="https://www.hsijournal.org/en/"><em>click here</em></a> to homepage</p> <p><strong>Welcome to the Health Sciences Investigations (HSI) Journal</strong></p> <p><strong>Our aim</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">The HSI Journal is an independent, international journal intended for the publication of original articles from the global scientific community. To reach the global community, especially those in resource-limited regions, HSI Journal provides on-line Open Access publications at no cost to authors and readers.</li> </ul> <p><strong>Our Mission</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">The HSI journal is a peer-reviewed journal for the communication of research results and policy issues in the health sciences and related disciplines. Our mission is to increase the visibility and impact of health sciences research in Ghana and globally</li> </ul> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Licensing</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">ID: Health Sciences Investigations (HSI) Journal</li> <li class="show">Electronic ISSN: 2704-4890 (ONLINE)</li> <li class="show">Print ISSN: 2720-7609 (PRINT)</li> <li class="show">Language: English</li> <li class="show">Webspace: <a href="http://www.hsijournal.org">hsijournal.org</a></li> </ul> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Scope</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">Health Sciences Investigations (HSI) Journal publishes manuscripts from basic and clinical health sciences including medicine, biomedicine, pharmacy, nursing, physical therapy, medical laboratory science, environmental health, public health, medical imaging and radiologic technologies and other allied health disciplines. The Journal is dedicated to serving scientists wishing to contribute to knowledge on global health. All HSI Journal publications are in English.</li> <li class="show">The Journal publishes original research articles, systematic reviews, case reports, brief communications and letters to the editor. The journal also publishes interviews with global opinion leaders and policy makers on health matters of global relevance. We welcome original contributions that have not been published and are not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Papers accepted for publication are double-blind refereed to ensure academic integrity.&nbsp;</li> </ul> <p><strong>Publication model</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">The HSI Journal's complete issues and individual articles are all open access.</li> <li class="show">All content in HSI can be freely accessed here at the journal's official website and also at other subscribed article indexing and archiving platforms. The list of indexed and/or archiving platforms will be continually be updated and displayed on the Journal website.</li> </ul> <p><strong>Frequency of publication</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">Online first publications.&nbsp;We provide online first publications (E-Publication First<sup>TM</sup>). All accepted papers are published online soon after completion of the necessary publishing processes. The HSI Journal hosts online PDF and HTML versions of manuscripts that have been peer-reviewed and accepted so that readers can freely access or cite the articles.</li> <li class="show">All published articles are subsequently compiled in final printed editions that are produced in two volumes during the reference year.</li> </ul> <p><strong>The HSI Journal Office</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">The HSI Journal ais located at the University of Ghana College of Health Sciences, Charles Easmon Building, 2<sup>nd</sup> floor, Room 21, Korle-Bu, Accra, Ghana. The Journal’s administrative office maintains all subscription records.</li> </ul> <p><strong>The HSI Journal address</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">Office address:&nbsp; University of Ghana College of Health Sciences, Charles Easmon Building, 2<sup>nd</sup> floor, Room 21, P.O Box K52, Korle-Bu, Accra, Ghana.</li> </ul> <ul> <li class="show">Contact email: <a href="mailto:info@hsijournal.org">info@hsijournal.org</a> / <span style="text-decoration: underline;">submit@hsijournal.org</span></li> </ul> <ul> <li class="show">Contact numbers:</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Mrs Yvonne Okantey:&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;+233 244156175</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Prof. Regina Appiah-Opong:&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;+233 249052475</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Prof. Christabel Enweronu-Laryea: &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;+233 208154886</p> <ul> <li class="show">To advertise, reproduce the content in the HSI Journal, or request for printed HSI Journal editions, please send an email to <a href="mailto:info@hsijournal.org">info@hsijournal.org</a> or call</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Mrs Yvonne Okantey: &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;+233 244156175</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Mr Godfred Amoah: &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;+233 244110902</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Mr Daniel Abankwa:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;+233 024953 4022</p> <p><strong>Article processing charges&nbsp;</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">There are no associated publication charges. We invite you to submit manuscripts via the <a href="https://www.hsijournal.org/ojs/index.php/journal/login">online submission platform</a>. There are no charges to publication in HSI Journal. Solicited reviews, commentaries, and comment letters to the Editor-in-Chief are not subject to print-page charges. New data letters to the Editor-in-Chief are not subject to print-page charges. Authors whose research were supported by grants, special funds or contracts or whose research were done as part of their official duties (government or corporate, etc.) are also not required to pay page charges.</li> </ul> <p><strong>Copyright statement</strong></p> <p>The HSI Journal conforms to the Creative Commons Attribution BY &nbsp;license. This copyright license permits others to distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit us for the original creation. More information on copyright and licensing information can be found <a title="creaticecommons" href="https://creativecommons.org/"><em>creativecommons.org</em></a></p> <p><strong>Copyright ownership</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">All content in the HSI Journal is published by the University of Ghana College of Health Sciences. All rights reserved. The HSI Journal publishes articles in Open Access at no cost to authors to allow for the widest visibility of the article. Upon acceptance of the article, authors will be asked to transfer copyright of the article to the HSI Journal. This will ensure the widest possible protection and dissemination of information under copyright laws.</li> <li class="show">The copyright transfer covers the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute articles in the HSI Journal, including reprints, translations, photographic reproductions, microform, electronic form (offline, online) or any other reproductions of similar nature. All rights reserved. No part of publications in HSI Journal may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the written permission of the copyright holder. Authors retain all proprietary rights such as patent rights, in any process, procedure or article of manufacture described in the paper. The HSI Journal is Open Access with no publication charges. The copyright to each article is transferred to the University of Ghana College of Health Sciences on behalf of the HSI Journal. when their manuscript is accepted for publication.</li> </ul> <p><strong>Publication Ethics</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">The HSI Journal is committed to supporting standards of ethical behaviour at all stages of the publication process. The HSI Journal adopts a neutral position on issues treated within its publications. It is the responsibility of authors to ensure that they comply with HSI Journal publication standards and guidelines. Our publication ethics conform to the <u>Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)</u> Best Practice Guidelines. The COPE standards protect the rights of authors, editors, reviewers and publishers alike, and seeks to uphold the reputation of journals and . The Journal adheres to publication standards of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE; <a href="http://www.icmje.org">icmje.org</a>), Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE; <a href="http://publicationethics.org/">http://publicationethics.org/</a>), and the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME; <a href="http://www.wame.org">www.wame.org</a>).</li> <li class="show"><img src="/ojs/public/site/images/admin/cope3.gif" width="216" height="80"></li> </ul> <p><strong>Review Policy</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">The HSI Journal follows double blind peer review policy. The manuscript is sent to two reviewers, who are experts in respective field, to review the paper in the light of journal's guidelines and features of a quality research paper. For manuscript that require revisions, the same reviewers will be used to ensure that the quality of the revised paper is acceptable.</li> <li class="show">We operate a transparent peer review process for the HSI Journal where reviewers’ names do not accompany reviewer comments to authors (unless a reviewer opts to include the name), which means that authors by default will not see the reviewers' names but only their comments. By agreeing to provide a report, reviewers understand that their reports will be made available, upon request, under an Open Access license Creative Commons CC-BY license (<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" data-auth="NotApplicable">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/</a>) if the manuscript is published.</li> </ul> <p><strong>Disclaimer</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">Opinions and statements expressed in the publications are those of the authors alone, and not of the editors, reviewers or the HSI Journal and its publisher.</li> </ul> <p><strong>Privacy Statement</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">The names, email addresses, and information entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.</li> </ul> <p><strong>Research suitable for publication</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">Please consult the Editorial Policies of the HSI Journal before preparing a manuscript for publication. Manuscripts that are inconsistent with the guidelines shall be declined by the Editor-in-chief without subjecting it to the full review. The HSI author guidelines conform to the ICMJE uniform requirements of manuscripts at <a href="http://www.icmje.org/about-icmje/faqs/icmje-recommendations/"><u>http:/www.icmje.org</u></a></li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US info@hsijournal.org (The Managing Editor) submit@hsijournal.org (HSI Technical Support) Wed, 15 Jul 2020 22:33:40 +0100 OJS 3.1.2.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Pharyngoplasty effectively relieves dysphagia from radiation-induced upper gastrointestinal tract strictures: A report of two cases https://www.hsijournal.org/ojs/index.php/journal/article/view/81 <p><span class="fontstyle0">Pharyngoesophageal strictures following external beam radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal tumors are common. The management has mainly been repeated dilatation. We report two cases of pharyngeal strictures following radiation therapy. Management modalities were repeated dilatation followed by colopharyngoplasty for the first case, and sternocleidomastoid myocutaneous pharyngoplasty for the second case. Both had uneventful post-operative recovery and have no dysphagia to solids or liquids since surgery.</span></p> Mark Tettey, Frank Edwin, Martin Tamatey, Gordon Offei-Larbi, Ernest Aniteye Copyright (c) June 2020 University of Ghana College of Health Sciences on behalf of HSI Journal https://www.hsijournal.org https://www.hsijournal.org/ojs/index.php/journal/article/view/81 Wed, 15 Jul 2020 20:26:36 +0100 Distribution and susceptibility profile of Candida isolates from HIV patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis https://www.hsijournal.org/ojs/index.php/journal/article/view/78 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Opportunistic infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among immuno-compromised patients. Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) dominates opportunistic fungal infections associated with HIV/AIDS.<br><strong>Objective</strong>: We determined the distribution and prevalence of antifungal resistance in Candida isolates recovered from patients infected with HIV and presenting with OPC.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: HIV-infected patients with provisional diagnosis of OPC were consecutively enrolled between May 2017 and June 2018. After patient data collection, oral swabs and blood specimens were collected for culture and CD4 T-lymphocyte estimation, respectively. Presumptive Candida isolates were speciated and their antifungal susceptibilities to fluconazole, flucytosine and amphotericin B, including minimum inhibitory concentration was determined using the E-test.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Of 286 patients enrolled, 67.8% (194) cultured positive for Candida spp. The mean age of culture positive patients was 40.7 ± 15.2 with more female enrollment (63.4%,123/194). The CD4 counts of culture positive patients were low (211.1 ± 235.6 cells/μL) and 68.6% (133) of them were on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) with 10.3% (20/194) having previous exposure to fluconazole. Seven different Candida species, with the following distributions were isolated: C. albicans (69.1%, 134), C. tropicalis (10.3%, 20), C. glabrata (6.7%, 13), C. parapsilosis (5.7%, 11), C. krusei (4.1%, 8), C. dubliniensis (2.6%, 5), and C. lusitaniae (1.5%, 3). Of all C. albicans isolates tested, 29.1%, 1.5% and 2.3% were resistant to fluconazole, amphotericin B and flucytosine, respectively. Non-C. albicans isolates showed 45%,<br>3.3% and 8.3% resistance to fluconazole, amphotericin B and flucytosine, respectively.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: C. albicans accounted for majority of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), with non-C. albicans showing significantly higher resistance to fluconazole. Positive culture was independent of gender, previous exposure to antifungal drugs, ART status and duration. Without any contraindication, flucytosine and Amphotericin B may be considered for OPC not responding to fluconazole therapy.</p> Henry A Quansah, Japheth A Opintan Copyright (c) June 2020 University of Ghana College of Health Sciences https://www.hsijournal.org https://www.hsijournal.org/ojs/index.php/journal/article/view/78 Wed, 15 Jul 2020 19:57:26 +0100 Association between caloric intake and work-related stress among nurses in two district hospitals in Ghana https://www.hsijournal.org/ojs/index.php/journal/article/view/80 <p><strong> <span class="fontstyle0">Background: </span></strong><span class="fontstyle2">The nursing profession is generally perceived as tedious and stressful and has been shown to be associated with inappropriate caloric intake with its attending consequences of obesity and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases.<br></span><strong><span class="fontstyle0">Objective: </span></strong><span class="fontstyle2">This study examined caloric intake and stress levels among nurses.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Methods:</strong> </span><span class="fontstyle2">A cross sectional study design was used, and a total of 85 nurses were sampled from two district level hospitals. Physiological and psychological levels of stress were measured using Salivary Cortisol Enzyme Immunoassay and the Cooper’s life stress inventory questionnaire, respectively. Body mass index (BMI) using height and weight measurements and caloric intake (using food frequency questionnaire and the 24 h recall of participants) were also determined. Stress levels were compared to caloric intakes using the Pearson’s correlation test. Data was analyzed using statistical Package for Social Scientists, Version 21. Statistical significance was set at </span><span class="fontstyle3">p </span><span class="fontstyle2">&lt; 0.05.<br></span><strong><span class="fontstyle0">Results: </span></strong><span class="fontstyle2">Participants were mostly females (90.60%) with a mean age ± [standard deviation (SD)] of 34.86 ± 6.27 yr. and majority of them (68.20%) were married. More than half (52.94%) of the nurses were in the World Health Organization classification of overweight, with a mean BMI (±SD) of 26.11 ± 2.96 kg/m</span><span class="fontstyle2">2</span><span class="fontstyle2">. Their mean caloric intake (±SD) off duty (2368.74 ± 259.67 kcal) was significantly higher (</span><span class="fontstyle3">p </span><span class="fontstyle2">˂ 0.001) compared to that on duty (1784.80 ± 402.84 kcal). When off duty compared to on duty, the nurses also recorded significantly higher (</span><span class="fontstyle3">p </span><span class="fontstyle2">&lt; 0.001) mean physiological stress scores (±SD) (61.18 ± 7.42 vs 17.12 ± 7.15) and salivary cortisol levels (±SD) (11.79 ± 1.06 μg/μL vs 5.10 ± 1.02 μg/μL). Significant positive correlations were observed for total caloric intakes and salivary cortisol levels for the nurses, both on duty [r = 0.585; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.425-0.780; </span><span class="fontstyle3">p </span><span class="fontstyle2">&lt; 0.001] and off duty (r = 0.316; 95% CI, 0.113-0.498; </span><span class="fontstyle3">p </span><span class="fontstyle2">&lt; 0.003).<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Conclusion:</strong> </span><span class="fontstyle2">The nurses had high stress levels whiles on duty and this was associated with low caloric intakes. Excessive caloric intakes were observed during off duty periods and associated with relatively lower stress levels.</span></p> Nagumsi Nuhu, Joana K Ainuson-Quampah, Charles A Brown, Charles A Brown Copyright (c) June 2020 University of Ghana College of Health Sciences on behalf of HSI Journal https://www.hsijournal.org https://www.hsijournal.org/ojs/index.php/journal/article/view/80 Wed, 15 Jul 2020 19:47:31 +0100 Coverage and use of long-lasting insecticide treated nets in Kpone-on-Sea Township, Accra, Ghana: A cross-sectional study https://www.hsijournal.org/ojs/index.php/journal/article/view/79 <p><span style="background-color: #ffffff;"><strong>Background</strong>: Long lasting insecticide-treated mosquito nets (LLINs) are currently one of the most viable options to prevent malaria transmission in Africa. In Ghana, the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) has embarked on a universal coverage strategy to ensure that all members of the population sleep under an LLIN regardless of age or sex.<br><strong>Objective</strong>: This study assessed the NMCP’s LLINs distribution and hanging campaign in Kpone–on–Sea Township. It sought to establish the coverage of LLINs in the community and its usage by children&lt; 5 yr. old and in pregnant women.<br><strong>Methods</strong>: The cross-sectional study involved 400 households with heads of the households or their representatives as respondents. Data was collected through questionnaire interviews and observational checklists. Frequency tables were used to indicate proportions and Chi Square test for associations.<br><strong>Results</strong>: Of the 400 households (represented by a head of the household or an adult representative), 93.30% owned any type of mosquito net and 83.75% owned LLINs and 74.92% used it. Households with children less than 5 yr. old accounted for 69.25% regarding ownership and 69.40% regarding usage. LLINs possession by pregnant women was 84.80% whiles usage was 72.30%. The study also indicated that 73.70% of respondents had good knowledge of malaria, 21.30% had very good knowledge and 5.01% had low knowledge. Furthermore, 89.50% of the respondents had knowledge of LLINs.<br><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The general coverage of LLINs in the community was 83.75% and usage was 74.92% 7 mos after a free distribution and hanging campaign. This provides a useful assessment of NMCP’s LLINs campaign in this community and suggests ways for improvement.</span></p> Setsoafia T Dzata, Nathaniel Coleman, Isabella Quakyi Copyright (c) June 2020 University of Ghana College of Health Sciences on behalf of HSI Journal https://www.hsijournal.org https://www.hsijournal.org/ojs/index.php/journal/article/view/79 Wed, 15 Jul 2020 19:47:10 +0100 Prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection, anaemia and use of ITNs among pregnant women yet to receive IPTp in parts of southern Ghana https://www.hsijournal.org/ojs/index.php/journal/article/view/75 <p><strong> <span class="fontstyle0">Background: </span></strong><span class="fontstyle2">Asymptomatic malaria in pregnancy evades most fever-based surveillance systems yet causes significant morbidities such as anaemia in the pregnant woman and low birth weight in the neonate.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Objective:</strong> </span><span class="fontstyle2">This study determined the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria and its association with anaemia among pregnant women who are yet to receive their first dose of Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) as intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp). Information on the use of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) as vector control by the pregnant women was also sought.<br></span><strong><span class="fontstyle0">Methods: </span></strong><span class="fontstyle2">This is a cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted in the Western Region of Ghana. Pregnant women at gestational ages, 16-26 wk were included. A structured questionnaire was used to collect vital information from the participants. </span><span class="fontstyle3">Plasmodium </span><span class="fontstyle2">parasitaemia was determined by rapid diagnostic test (MRDT), microscopy and species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Anaemia was classified using the level of haemoglobin.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0"><strong>Results:</strong> </span><span class="fontstyle2">A total of 413 antenatal clinic attendants were recruited. Prevalence of asymptomatic </span><span class="fontstyle3">Plasmodium falciparum </span><span class="fontstyle2">infection was 13.1% by MRDT, 10.1% by microscopy and 13.8% by PCR. The mean haemoglobin was 10.73 g/dL. Prevalence of anaemia was 40.49% and the mean parasite density was 149.6 parasite/µL. Pregnant women with asymptomatic malaria were 4 times more at risk of being anaemic (adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval: 4.42, 1.82 -10.70) than those who did not have malaria. There was statistically significant negative correlation between parasite density and anaemia (r = 0.0028, </span><span class="fontstyle3">p </span><span class="fontstyle2">= 0.02).<br></span><strong><span class="fontstyle0">Conclusion: </span></strong><span class="fontstyle2">Asymptomatic </span><span class="fontstyle3">P. falciparum </span><span class="fontstyle2">infection was found among some of the pregnant women and the presence of the parasites make them 4 times at increased risk of developing anaemia. Anaemia when occurring amongst such women was significantly worsened by increasing parasitaemia.</span></p> Leslie L Afutu, Johnson N Boampong, Neils B Quashie Copyright (c) June 2020 University of Ghana College of Health Sciences on behalf of HSI Journal https://www.hsijournal.org https://www.hsijournal.org/ojs/index.php/journal/article/view/75 Wed, 15 Jul 2020 19:07:32 +0100